Electrical Laws

Ohm's Law Coulomb's Law Kirchoff's Law Faraday's Law Ampere's Law Joule's Law Lenz's Law Biot Savart Law

Electrical Theorems

Thevenin Theorem Nortons Theorem Super Position Theorem Reciprocity Theorem Compensation Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Millmans Theorem Tellegans Theorem

Electrical Rules

Flemings Left Hand Rule Flemings Right Hand Rule Cork Screw Rule

Electrical Network

Network Terminologies

Electrical Terms

Electrical Terms Materials Capacitors Resistors Inductor Self Inductance Mutual Inductance Magnetic Flux Magnetic Characteristics EMF MMF Permeability Sources Reluctance Torque

Electrical Transformer

Transformers How Transformer Works Transformer Classifications Types Transformers Core Type Transformers Ideal Transformers Parallel Operation Transformer Cooling Transformer Forces Transformer Losses Transformer Testing Transformer Bushing Transformer Windings

Types of Transformer

Auto Transformer Current Transformer Potential Transformer Rectifier Transformer Converter Transformer

AC Motor

Stator and Rotor Three Phase Induction Motor Induction Motor Transformer

AC Generator

AC Generators Alternator Stator Construction Alternator Rotor Construction Alternator - Parallel Operation Synchronizing AC Alternator Losses in Alternator

DC Motors

DC Motors Commutator Braking of Electric Motors Dynamic Rheostatic Braking Regenerative Braking Plugging Braking Speed Control DC Motor Losses DC Motors

Types Of DC Motor

DC Motors Types DC Series Motors DC Shunt Motors DC Compound Motor Brushless DC Motors Permanent Magnet DC Motor

Starter For DC Motors

Starters DC Motors

DC Generator

DC Generator Types DC Generators Sparking DC Generators Why Generator Overloading Losses DC Generators

Parallel Operation

PO - DC Generator Series DC Generator Shunt DC Generator Compound DC Generator
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Ideal Transformers

What is Ideal Transformer

An ideal transformer is one which has no losses in it. An ideal transformer is completely an imaginary transformer, Though Ideal transformer doesn't exist in this world, the study is made to better understanding of actual transformer. Ideal transformer winding have no ohmic resistance and there is no magnetic leakage. Simply, an ideal transformer consists of two coils which are purely inductive and wound on a loss-free core.

Ideal Transformer on NO LOAD

Consider an ideal transformer whose primary is connected to a sinusoidal alternation voltage source s and whose secondary is opened. Under this condition, when the sinusoidal voltage s is turned ON, the primary draws a current from the source to build up a emf(self induced) which is equal and opposite to the applied voltage source s. Since the coils are purely inductive and there is no load, the primary draws the magnetising current Iμ from the applied voltage source s to magnetise the core. This alternating magnetising current Iμ produces an alternating flux Φ which is proportional to the current and hence is in phase with it. This changing flux is linked with both the windings. Due to this changing flux an emf (e2) is induced in the secondary side called mutually induced emf This mutually induced emf (e2) acts very much similar to the self induced emf (e1) ie) in phase and opposite to the applied voltage v1 Here, the magnitute of the mutually induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux and the number of secondary turns.

Ideal Transformer ON LOAD

Consider an Ideal transformer whose secondary is loaded. When the secondary is loaded, secondary current I2 is set up as it forms a closed circuit. The magnitude of I2 is determined by the characteristic of the load. Due to the current I2, the flux Φ2 is set up which opposes to the primary flux Φ, which is due to Io. The opposing secondary flux Φ2 weakens the primary flux for a very short time and primary back emf E1 tends to reduce. At that particular time, V1 > E1 and hence causes more current(I'2) to flow in the primary winding. This current I'2 is also known as load component of primary current. I'2 current is in phase and opposition to current I2 in the secondary winding. Similarly the flux Φ'2 opposes Φ2 in the same direction with equal magnitude. Thus, the secondary current I2 get neutralized immediately by additional primary current I'2.

Ideal transformer NO LOAD vs Ideal Transformer ON LOAD

NO LOAD Ideal Transformer ON LOAD Ideal Transformer
Net Flux passing through the core is approximately equal to ON load ideal transformer Net Flux passing through the core is approximately equal to NO load ideal transformer
I2 = 0 I2 α to load
Core loss is same as ON load Ideal transformer Core loss is same as NO load Ideal transformer
Primary current = I0 Primary current = I0 + I'2

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