Electrical Laws

Ohm's Law Coulomb's Law Kirchoff's Law Faraday's Law Ampere's Law Joule's Law Lenz's Law Biot Savart Law

Electrical Theorems

Thevenin Theorem Nortons Theorem Super Position Theorem Reciprocity Theorem Compensation Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Millmans Theorem Tellegans Theorem

Electrical Rules

Flemings Left Hand Rule Flemings Right Hand Rule Cork Screw Rule

Electrical Network

Network Terminologies

Electrical Terms

Electrical Terms Materials Capacitors Resistors Inductor Self Inductance Mutual Inductance Magnetic Flux Magnetic Characteristics EMF MMF Permeability Sources Reluctance Torque

Electrical Transformer

Transformers How Transformer Works Transformer Classifications Types Transformers Core Type Transformers Ideal Transformers Parallel Operation Transformer Cooling Transformer Forces Transformer Losses Transformer Testing Transformer Bushing Transformer Windings

Types of Transformer

Auto Transformer Current Transformer Potential Transformer Rectifier Transformer Converter Transformer

AC Motor

Stator and Rotor Three Phase Induction Motor Induction Motor Transformer

AC Generator

AC Generators Alternator Stator Construction Alternator Rotor Construction Alternator - Parallel Operation Synchronizing AC Alternator Losses in Alternator

DC Motors

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Types Of DC Motor

DC Motors Types DC Series Motors DC Shunt Motors DC Compound Motor Brushless DC Motors Permanent Magnet DC Motor

Starter For DC Motors

Starters DC Motors

DC Generator

DC Generator Types DC Generators Sparking DC Generators Why Generator Overloading Losses DC Generators

Parallel Operation

PO - DC Generator Series DC Generator Shunt DC Generator Compound DC Generator
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Transformers

Why Transformers

Some kind of energy(says thermal energy) is converted into electricity in power plants. Power plants are situated far away from industries, commercial centres, villages, residential colonies and even from your house. The generator used in power plants generate electricity at a particular voltage (says 11KV). The generated electricity with 11KV cannot be transmitted via transmission line to the user demanded areas(industries) as the losses in transmission will be more. The only way to reduce the losses occur in the transmission line is by stepping up the voltage level of generated electricity from 11KV to 220KV. By using step up transformer at the sending end , the voltage of the generated electricity can be easily step up from 11KV to 220KV. The power plant wherefrom electricity is transmitted via transmission line is called as sending end. Whereas the other end of the transmission lines where the electricity is received is called as receiving end. At the receiving end , a step down transformer is get used to step down the electricity from 220kV to 400V (for 3Փ ) or 230V(for 1Փ ) as consumers appliance prefer this voltage rating.

What is Transformer

Basically, a transformer is a static device comprising coils coupled through a magnetic medium connecting two ports at different voltage levels in an electrical system allowing the transfer of electrical energy from one ports to the other via the magnetic field. The port(winding) from which the electrical energy is transfer is called as Primary winding. The port(winding) to which the electrical energy is transfered is called as Secondary winding. Normally, the primary winding of the transformer is connected to the supply or generating station. The secondary winding of the transformer is connected to the load (says fans,bulbs etc).

Facts about Transformer

Transformer does not generate any electricity. Transformer only transforms and transfers electrical energy from one circuit to the other circuit. Volt-ampere rating (says power rating) of the transformer is same whether calculated on the primary winding or at the secondary winding. Frequency of the alternating voltage on both side of the transformer will not change.

Purpose of Transformer

  • For changing voltage and current levels in electric power systems
  • For transfer of electrical energy from one circuit to another with electrical isolation
  • Transformer matches source and load impedances for maximum power transfer in electronics circuit.

Life of a Transformer

Practically, A transformer has no moving parts, except tapchangers or cooling fan or pump motors. Thus the life of a transformer is normally dependent upon the life of insulation. To be fair, transformer never dies.It is usually killed, by some unusual stresses breaking down a weakened part leads to the end of a transformer life. The life of a transformer has ended when probability of its failure becomes too high. Practically speaking, prediction of probability of its failure is impossible. Thus we can't judge the life of a transformer.

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